STANDABDS 205
The elements in Table 8 are not stated in the order
of performance but are assembled according to that
variable upon which their total time of performance
depends. Under "variables," each is stated and an
algebraic symbol for it is assigned. First there are
four elements which are done once per every group of
pieces handled and machined together. As the sum of
the standard times for these elements is .131 minutes,
we get the term .131N of the formula for the time of
main cycles.
Next, under "Operations" in Table 8, are two elements
of time, whose total in any job depends upon the
lengths of cuts taken and upon whether these cuts are
with or across the grain. These result in the terms
.003 L and .0051 of the formula.
Then follow two elements which are done once per
every group of edges handled and machined together,
which give the term .017 E of the formula.
The elemental standard times given in Table 8 are
the average of several such elemental standards determined
each for a different kind of work. Again,
each of these elemental standards was derived from
several observations of actual times for the performance
of that element. The method of determining
standard time from actual time is discussed in Articles
198 to 200.
Elemental actual times can not be observed continuously,
because no one can handle stop-watch, pencil,
and paper fast enough to observe and record such short
times without interruption. One must first analyze the
work into its elements; and then, as an element occurs,
one must time it, and then allow other elements
to go untimed, until he has recorded the observation
and is ready to make another. One must, of course,